brown rice, white rice

Manufacturing process

Shiv Brand is a familiar name and one of the leading brands in South India for more than five decades. Originating from the KNR Rice Mill located in Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, the brand is well renowned for its rice and spice varieties. Rice is the principal food crop in practically all the tropical regions of the world as well as in most subtropical areas and in some temperate zone areas having a relatively long growing season. Probably half of the world population depends on rice for its major food source. Rice is a highly beneficial ingredient in processed foods. While rice is different than most grains because it is generally eaten in its kernel form, its properties are ideal components in the manufacturing of cereals, snack foods, baby foods, frozen dinners,sauce thickeners and other products.

For human consumption, the hall present on the threshed or "rough" rice, is first removed. In some countries, the rice is machine milled. This removes the hull, bran, germ, and some of the endosperm. The first step after cleaning the rice to remove any chaff and foreign matter, is to pass the kernels through a sheller which may consist of paired rubber rollers revolving at different speeds. Hulling stones may also be used. One horizontal stone is stationary and a second one revolves. When properly spaced they loosen the hulls with minimum kernel breakage. The product from this step is brown rice, the bran layer and germ being still present on the grain.

Brown rice is generally further milled to remove the bran and germ. This is accomplished by rubbing or scouring. A final step is termed brushing. It consists of passing the rice through a rapidly revolving vertical cylinder covered with overlapping pieces of cowhide or pigskin. This results in a polished surface on the grains.

A step termed parboiling, preliminary to hulling, is often used. The rough rice is first soaked, then steamed either under pressure or without pressure, and subsequently dried before removing the hulls. This results in a toughening of the endosperm and less breakage. Also, minerals and vitamins present in the bran and embryo move into the grain proper to some extent, so parboiled rice is higher in these important nutrients than rice hulled without such treatment. In some countries, the rough rice is first put under vacuum to remove air, then is soaked under pressure and finally steamed under pressure. This process shortens the time of treatment compared with parboiling and results in similar reduced breakage of the endosperm and enhanced nutritive value.